Author Archives: Graeme Livermore

SPACE

SPACE

Long empty dark, bringing faith of content.

Wrongful illusions formed of temporal drift.

Gems of clumped matter with niche’s for living.

Chemical molecular magical creators.

Thin clinging smears shielding co-operative intellectuals.

Cold hard shells for exploration and hope.

Charity of randomized destiny, cutting lines through millennia.

Hold fast, cling long, bring light to the dark.

 

 

New Horizons mission nearing Pluto after nine years in space

Members of the media garbed in protective unforms view NASA's New Horizons spacecraft 04 November 2005 in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida during preparations for its mid-January 2006 launch aboard an Atlas V rocket. The New Horizons will be the first mission to the planet Pluto and the Kuiper Belt, the journey taking about nine years. Pluto was discovered in 1930 at a distance of some 6.4 billion kilometers (three billion miles) from the sun in the heart of the Kuiper Belt -- a zone beyond Neptune 4.5-7.5 billion kilometers (2.8-4.6 billion miles) from the sun, which is estimated to include more than 35,000 objects of more than 100 kilomters (65 miles) in diameter: the remnants of the sun's accretion ring of matter from which all the planets were formed. AFP PHOTO/Bruce WEAVER (Photo credit should read BRUCE WEAVER/AFP/Getty Images)© Bruce

Source: http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/technology/new-horizons-mission-nearing-pluto-after-nine-years-in-space/ar-BBgckI8?ocid=ansBaltimoreSun11

 

Weaver/AFP/Getty Images Members of the media garbed in protective unforms view NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft 04 November 2005 in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at Kennedy Space Center, Florida during…It took the spacecraft New Horizons, hurtling from Earth faster than any mission before it, a matter of hours to pass the moon’s orbit and a year to reach Jupiter’s gravity.

Nine years into its journey, it’s finally approaching its destination: Pluto.

Much has changed since scientists at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Md., conceived the mission a decade and a half ago. Astronomers found two more moons orbiting Pluto, observed changes in its thin atmosphere, and determined the distant object wasn’t a planet, after all.

But they expect those discoveries to pale compared to the observations New Horizons will record once they wake it from hibernation Saturday, and as it approaches an encounter with Pluto in July. They organized the mission to learn more about Pluto’s composition and characteristics, and how planets formed in the early universe.

Scientists have waited patiently for the data, and they have more waiting ahead: The bulk of the data New Horizons collects in July will take days or weeks to beam back to Earth in chunks — and could yet take years to fully grasp.

“There’s been a lot of delayed gratification,” said Hal Weaver, the lab’s New Horizons project scientist.

But scientists say it will be worth the wait. Relatively little is known about Pluto, an object smaller than Earth’s moon and more than 15,000 times farther away. Only in recent years have ground-based telescopes been developed that are powerful enough to see it in any detail.

Since Pluto’s discovery in 1930, astronomers have been able to make only tentative hypotheses about it and other objects around it.

“That’s where we would be stuck if we didn’t have a mission,” said Keith Noll, chief of the planetary systems laboratory at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. His lab is not directly involved in the mission, but studies Pluto and other objects at the edge of the solar system.

“You’re just groping in a dark room, but this is going to be like turning on the light switch.”

NASA approved the Hopkins scientists’ plans to design, build and operate New Horizons in 2001. The mission was canceled twice, and other initiatives to explore Pluto could not get past fits and starts amid NASA budget cuts.

It launched in January 2006, within a window that would allow it to make the journey from Earth in 91/2. When it escaped Earth’s gravity, rockets propelled it away at 36,000 mph, and when it passed Jupiter a year later, engineers were able to use the gaseous giant’s gravity to increase that speed by 20 percent — cutting its journey by three years.

At that point, it wasn’t even a quarter of the way to its target.

Meanwhile, back on Earth, the International Astronomical Union demoted Pluto in 2006 from planet to the newly defined dwarf planet — an object that orbits the sun and is massive enough to have been rounded by its own gravity, but which has not exerted enough gravitational pull to clear its neighborhood of other objects.

Aside from semiannual checkups and some brief observations of Jupiter — it watched bursts of electrically charged particles spewing from the planet, and eruptions on one volcanic moon — New Horizons has otherwise been idly cruising.

But it is set to spring to life Saturday afternoon, under commands programmed into its computer in August. At about 4:30 p.m., it’s expected to send word that it is in “active” mode — a message that, even traveling at the speed of light, will take 41/2 hours to reach Earth.

At that point, New Horizons should be 162 million miles from Pluto, less than two astronomical units (the distance between the Earth and the sun).

In mid-January, its payload of seven instruments is to begin observing Pluto from afar. They include sensors to image the dwarf planet’s system in infrared and ultraviolet light and two cameras, and should be able to record increasing detail leading up to the planned July 14 fly-by.

Scientists have a long list of goals, Weaver said, including mapping the composition of Pluto and its largest Moon, Charon, down to a scale in kilometers, as well as the planet’s atmosphere, which is somewhere between 100,000 and 1 million times thinner than that of Earth. They know the surface contains frozen ethane, and that the atmosphere contains nitrogen and traces of methane and carbon monoxide, but expect to get a more detailed picture using New Horizons’ instruments.

They also plan to get a closer look at Kerberos and Styx, two smaller moons that the Hubble Space Telescope spotted in 2005, and to search for any other moons or rings around Pluto.

But gathering the observations isn’t as simple as pointing and shooting a camera. The distance to Pluto is so far that it’s difficult to measure with precision, said Mark Holdridge, mission manager of the Pluto encounter. And because 248 years pass on Earth each time Pluto revolves around the sun, scientists haven’t observed enough of it to map its orbit with certainty.

Thus, they have an estimate of when New Horizons will pass by, but they need the actual timeline of the fly-by to fall within about 7 minutes of their calculations.

“If we’re off by a certain amount, we could get a lot of black space,” Holdridge said. “That would be very disappointing for everyone who has worked on this mission for the last 15 years.”

While some data should take the 41/2-hour trip back to Earth immediately, it could take days or weeks for researchers to get their hands on a richer set of observations, because New Horizons is equipped with only a six-foot-long antenna with the transmission capability of an old telephone-based modem.

“That’s the biggest we could fit and still get to Pluto in nine and a half years,” Weaver said. “Since we’ve been waiting nine and a half years, we can wait another day before sending down some of the greatest data.”

And before that, observations sent as New Horizons approaches Pluto could still be better than anything scientists have seen before. It is expected to be only the fifth space probe to escape the solar system, and the first since Voyager 1, which launched in 1977 and entered interstellar space in 2012.

Mankind’s timeline – How our moments just tick

Was just mulling over a regular series for the blog (still pending).

First thought was to do a series of predictions in relation to technology, science, polotics and environment, but first thing I do is start research and find:

http://www.futuretimeline.net

Curses.

Just though I’d share 2020

2020 — America’s power shift is destabilising the Asia-Pacific region | Generation X is reshaping global politics | Internet use reaches 5 billion worldwide | The 5G standard is released | Texting by thinking | Complex organ replacements grown from stem cells | The first stem cell therapy for congestive heart failure | A cure for malaria | Progress with longevity extension | Genetically engineered “super” bananas | Ultra High Definition Television (4320p) is common in homes | Holographic TV is going mainstream | Africa and the Middle East are linked by a trans-continental bridge |Tokyo hosts the Olympic Games | Hong Kong’s Mass Transit Railway (MTR) has been significantly expanded | The first self-sufficient, car-free city in mainland China | Completion of the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link | The UK has expanded its offshore grid connections | Smart meters in every UK home |Public smoking is banned across every US state | Coal is banned in Beijing | Mercury pollution has been greatly reduced | Glacier National Park and other regions are becoming ice-free | Britain’s new aircraft carriers reach full operational capability | 30,000 drones are patrolling the skies of America| Mars 2020 rover mission | BepiColombo arrives in orbit around Mercury | Video games with photo-realistic graphics | Expo 2020 is held in Dubai

 

 

 

 

The man that saved the world

I did not know this, just encountered it on Google+. Has to be shared and a contribution recognized, you, I and everyone you know, would probably not be here now if it wasn’t for Vasili Arkhipov.

“This finely decorated gentleman is no other than Vasili Arkhipov, a Soviet Navy Officer.
During the Cuban Missile Crisis, it was up to him and two other officers to decide whether or not to launch a nuclear torpedo against the US. They had to decide unanimously in order to launch. Arkhipov was the only one of the three to vote against it, thereby stopping the submarine from launching a nuclear torpedo, thereby stopping NUCLEAR WAR from breaking out.”

4f62c3917bd81772b525ae8933e2b387

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasili_Arkhipov

Google Page Rank 8 and 9 Links

As a public service and a bit of “link Juicing” see below a list of 169 Page Rank 8 and Page Rank 9 websites. I note some may be dead or redirected, but still of value.
Happy “BackLink” Hunting

aaas.org

acm.org

adobe.com

altavista.com

amazon.com

aol.com

apache.org

apple.com

aps.org

archive.org

arizona.edu

arxiv.org

asu.edu

barnesandnoble.com

berkeley.edu

blogger.com

bloglines.com

brown.edu

bu.edu

cbc.ca

cbsnews.com

cdc.gov

cern.ch

cisco.com

cmu.edu

cnet.com

cnrs.fr

colorado.edu

columbia.edu

com.com

computer.org

cornell.edu

creativecommons.org

debian.org

dhs.gov

dmoz.org

doi.gov

duke.edu

eb.com

ebay.com

economist.com

elsevier.com

energy.gov

energystar.gov

epa.gov

ercim.org

ethz.ch

ets.org

excite.com

fao.org

firefox.com

flash.com

flickr.com

freshmeat.net

fws.gov

gamespot.com

gnu.org

go.com

google.fr

grants.gov

harvard.edu

hotbot.com

house.gov

hp.com

ibm.com

ieee.org

ietf.org

iht.com

iie.org

imdb.com

indiana.edu

inria.fr

intel.com

internet2.edu

iom.edu

itu.int

jalbum.net

java.com

jhu.edu

keio.ac

loc.gov

lycos.com

macromedia.com

mapquest.com

metacrawler.com

microsoft.com

mozilla.com

mozilla.org

msn.com

msnbc.com

msu.edu

mysql.com

nap.edu

nas.edu

nasa.gov

nationalacademies.org

nature.com

netscape.com

newsgator.com

nih.gov

nist.gov

noaa.gov

nokia.com

npr.org

nrel.gov

nsf.gov

nytimes.com

oanda.com

opensource.org

opera.com

oracle.com

ornl.gov

pbs.org

perl.com

php.net

pitt.edu

plone.org

princeton.edu

psu.edu

python.org

real.com

realnetworks.com

realplayer.com

redhat.com

regulations.gov

rutgers.edu

section508.gov

senate.gov

si.edu

siteground.com

slashdot.com

slashdot.org

sourceforge.net

stanford.edu

statcounter.com

state.gov

sun.com

times.com

truste.org

uci.edu

uiuc.edu

umd.edu

umich.edu

umn.edu

un.org

unc.edu

unesco.org

upenn.edu

usc.edu

usda.gov

usdoj.gov

utexas.edu

utoronto.ca

va.gov

verisign.com

virginia.edu

vlib.org

washington.edu

webstandards.org

whitehouse.gov

who.int

windowsmediaplayer.com

winzip.com

wired.com

wisc.edu

wordpress.com

wordpress.org

yahoo.com

yahoomail.com